Foreword

At the first International Conference on Nutrition, held in 1992, global leaders pledged to “act in solidarity to ensure that freedom from hunger becomes a reality.”

Although great progress has been made in reducing the prevalence of hunger, over 800 million people are still unable to meet their daily calorie needs for living healthy lives. About one in nine people go to bed daily on an empty stomach. In cases where food is available often the quality of the food does not meet micronutrient (vitamin and mineral) needs. More than two billion people continue to suffer from nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin A, iron, zinc and iodine. While the world is grappling with issues of undernutrition, there is also the growing problem of obesity, which now affects around 500 million people. Many countries are facing a triple burden of malnutrition, where undernourishment, micronutrient deficiency and obesity exist in the same community and household.

ICN2 presents another opportunity for the global community to make a commitment and take action to address this global menace. The two outcome documents of ICN2 - the Rome Declaration and the Framework for Action - will provide the basis for renewed commitment and focused action for addressing malnutrition within the coming decade. Experiences from the Millennium Development Goals indicate that, with a united commitment, we can achieve significant results. We must now move forward with the same determination as we address new global challenges through the Sustainable Development Goals.

Having clear indicators to measure progress is very important. Statistics are a fundamental tool in this process, necessary to identify problems and monitor progress. The better the data, the better policies can be designed to improve nutrition worldwide. Without good data, it is impossible to evaluate or determine the impact of policies, or hold stakeholders accountable for pledges they make. For statistics to effectively inform food and agriculture policies, they need to be accessible and clear to policymakers at global, regional and country levels. This pocketbook presents selected key indicators related to food and nutrition outcomes that stakeholders can use to prioritise their actions.

This food and nutrition pocketbook was produced jointly by the FAO Statistics and Nutrition Divisions. It is part of the FAO Statistical Yearbook suite of products and is one of the tools that can be used as building blocks for evidence-based policy making. It includes data from FAOSTAT as well as from other partners in the organization and in the international community.

There are still gaps in the information. We hope that ICN2 will provide the forum for discussion on ways to improve the data to better monitor nutrition.


Anna Lartey Pietro Gennari
Director, Nutrition Division Chief Statistician and Director, Statistics Division

Introduction

Overcoming malnutrition in all of its forms – caloric undernourishment, micronutrient deficiencies and obesity – requires a combination of interventions in different areas that guarantee the availability of and access to healthy diets. Among the key areas, interventions are required in food systems, public health systems and the provision of safe water and sanitation. This pocketbook not only focuses on indicators of food security and nutritional outcomes but also on the determinants that contribute to healthy lives.

The pocketbook is structured in 2 sections:

• Thematic spreads related to food security and nutrition, including detailed food consumption data collected from national household budget surveys,
• Comprehensive country and regional profiles with indicators categorized by anthropometry, nutritional deficiencies, supplementation, dietary energy supplies, preceded by their "setting."


The setting provides demographic indicators, health status based on mortality patterns and the provision of safe water and sanitation.

Anthropometry indicators provide information not only on the prevalence of acute and chronic forms of under-nutrition but also on the prevalence of obesity – often referred to as the double burden of malnutrition.

Nutritional deficiency indicators reveal food security issues at the national level based on the adequacy of energy supplies; but they also reveal the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, often referred to as “hidden hunger”. Combined with anthropometric measure, they allow identifying the triple burden of malnutrition (under-nutrition, obesity and hidden hunger).

Supplementation is key in preventing malnutrition in food-based approaches. Here, indicators concerning iodine and vitamin A have been selected.

Dietary indicators are based on national food supplies and inform on the overall quality of diets. Focus is also on the importance of diets during the first 1000 days of an infant’s life, with indicators selected on the quality of breastfeeding, dietary diversity and meal frequency.

The choice of indicators was guided by the following criteria: relevance to health, food security and nutrition, comparability over time, and availability, in particular for low income countries. But the criteria were relaxed for several indicators given their importance and the lack of available substitutes. It is hoped that the presence of data gaps will bring about greater efforts to collect the necessary information because only with timely and reliable data can interventions be designed and targeted towards those in most need.

Economy

Changes in the wider economy, including growing global integration, also affect the performance of the agriculture sector. Higher overall economic growth also raises consumers’ incomes and hence food demand. Changing interest rates influence capital investments, land values and storage levels, while inflation affects input prices, revenues and credit costs. Fluctuations in exchange rates have an important bearing on international competitiveness and trade flows. While some sectors have been hard hit, agriculture has demonstrated resilience during the recent economic downturn.





FIGURE 1: Value added in agricolture as share of GDP (percent, 2012)

Population

A combination of declining mortality rates, prolonged life expectancy and younger populations in regions characterized by high fertility has contributed to world population growth. While growth rates have been slowing since the late 1960s, the world’s population has nevertheless doubled since then, to approximately 7 billion. Population growth is generally the highest where income levels are low. This is especially true in cities. Since 2008, there have been more people living in cities than in rural areas.





FIGURE 2: Rural population, share of total population (percent, 2013)

Prices

High food prices can be an impediment to food security. By reducing real income, rising prices can worsen the prevalence of hunger and malnutrition through lowering the quantity and quality of food consumed. The impact of high and increasingly volatile prices falls heaviest on the poor, who may spend as much as 80 percent of their incomes on food. The lack of dietary diversification aggravates the problem, as price increases in one staple cannot easily be compensated by switching to other foods. In addition, farmers are less likely to invest in measures to raise productivity when price changes are unpredictable. The recent significant declines in food prices should help ease these problems.





FIGURE 3: FAO consumer price index (index, 2013)

Trade

Most of the food consumed worldwide is grown locally. Where there is not enough local production to meet demand, trade has been instrumental in filling the gap. The scale of food and agricultural trade today is unprecedented. In real terms, the value of international flows has increased around fivefold over the past 50 years, reflecting global trends in the overall volume of trade. However, this expansion has been unevenly distributed across regions. High-income countries have generally outpaced developing regions, although several of the latter have comparative advantages in food and agricultural production.





FIGURE 4: Import value index (2004-2006 = 100) (index, 2011)

Undernourishment

Undernourishment refers to food intake that is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements for an active and healthy life. About 805 million people are estimated to be chronically undernourished in 2012–14. This number has fallen by 100 million over the last decade, and by 209 million since 1990-92. Despite progress, the number is still high, and marked differences across regions persist. Latin America and the Caribbean have made the greatest overall progress with modest progress in sub-Saharan Africa and Western Asia, which have been afflicted by natural disasters and conflict.





FIGURE 5: Prevalence of people undernourished (percent, 2012-14)

Undernutrition

Undernutrition is just one of the burdens of malnutrition and is caused by poor absorption or poor biological use of nutrients consumed as a result of repeated infectious disease. It includes being underweight for one’s age, too short for one’s age (stunted), dangerously thin for one’s height (wasted) and deficient in vitamins and minerals (micronutrient malnutrition). It can impose high economic and social costs in countries at all income levels. Micronutrient deficiencies – namely vitamin A, anemia and iodine – are forms of undernutrition.






FIGURE 6: Prevalence of anemia among children under 5 years of age (percent, 2011)

Overweight/Obesity

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. These phenomena are measured by the Body Mass Index (BMI); a BMI above than 25 kg/m2 indicates overweight, and obesity if it exceeds a level of 30 kg/m2. A high BMI is associated with a higher prevalence of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes, various cancers and osteoarthritis. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in all regions and is also increasing in nearly all countries.





FIGURE 7: Prevalence of overweight and obesity, adults (percent, 2008)

Food security indicators

Food security is a complex phenomenon that manifests itself in numerous physical conditions resulting from multiple causes. The World Food Summit of 1996 established four dimensions of food security: availability, access, stability and utilization. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013 introduced a suite of indicators organized around these four dimensions with a view to overcoming the drawbacks that arise from relying solely on one indicator for the measurement of food security, the prevalence of undernourishment indicator. Availability captures not only the quantity, but also the quality and diversity of food. Access comprises indicators of physical access and infrastructure. Stability is divided into two groups: the first that covers factors that measure exposure to food security risk, and the second that focuses on the incidence of shocks. Utilization includes variables that determine the availability to utilize food as well as the outcomes of poor utilization. All available data on each dimension of food security have been compiled, and changes in these dimensions of time have been analyzed. Overall, the analyses suggest positive developments over time. Many developing countries have made significant progress in improving overall food security and nutrition. But this progress has been uneven across both regions and dimensions of food security. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia have made the least headway, while Eastern Asia and Latin America have made the most progress in improving food security.

Food security indicators, data and meta data, are available for free download at this link


Dietary energy supply

The dietary energy supply (DES) is the food available for human consumption, expressed in kilocalories per person per day. At the country level, it is calculated as the food remaining for human use after taking out all non-food utilization, including exports, industrial use, animal feed, seed, wastage and changes in stocks. In 1961 the average global calorie availability was as low as 2 193 kcal/cap/day; by 2011, it had reached 2 868 kcal/cap/day, and was centered more around a narrow base of staple grains as well as meat and dairy products.





FIGURE 8: Dietary energy supply (kcal/cap/day, 2009-11)

Cereals - excluding beer

Cereals are made up of wheat, rice, barley, maize, rye, oats, millet, sorghum and other cereals. Cereals are the most important food source for human consumption. Developing countries surpassed developed ones in total cereals consumption in the early 1980s and now account for 61 percent of world consumption. World average per capita rice consumption has leveled off after the late 1980s, following mild declines in several countries of East and South Asia. Similar trends characterize consumption trends for wheat.





FIGURE 9: Share of DES from cereals (percent, 2009-11)

Starchy roots

Starchy roots include potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, yams and other roots, and they represent the mainstay of diets in poor countries, many of which are located in sub-Saharan Africa and are characterized by low overall food consumption levels. The high dependence on roots, tubers and plantains reflects the agro-ecological conditions of these countries and, to a large extent, also on the persistence of poverty and lack of progress towards diet diversification.





FIGURE 10: Share of DES from starchy roots (percent, 2009-11)

Sugar and sweeteners

This group includes sugar cane, sugar beet, honey and other sweeteners. Consumption of sugar has been growing rapidly in developing countries, which now accounts for almost three-quarters of global consumption, up from just over half in the 1980s. Consumption in high-income countries has stagnated, partially as a result of the rapid expansion of cornbased sweeteners in the U.S.





FIGURE 11: Share of DES from sugar and sweeteners (percent, 2009-11)

Fruit and vegetable

World production of fruit and vegetables has experienced a remarkable increase. Output has been growing at an annual rate of approximately 3 percent in the last decade. But, beyond their monetary value, fruit and vegetables play an important role in improving diets. WHO and FAO recommend a minimum of 400 g of fruit and vegetables per day – excluding starchy root crops – for the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity, and for the prevention and alleviation of several micronutrient deficiencies.





FIGURE 12: Share of DES from fruit and vegetable (percent, 2009-11)

Meat

Meat includes bovine, mutton and goat, pig meat and poultry. Although the world economy is now growing at a slower rate, higher incomes have caused a shift in diets towards more animal-based products, notably towards more meat. This shift has been particularly strong in developing countries, with the poultry sector underpinning growth. For instance, meat consumption in China went from approximately 29 kcal/capita/day in the 1960s to about 450 kcal/capita/day today. Agriculture is being affected, not only through the growth of livestock production, but also through the linkages to other sectors that supply feeding stuffs, such as crops and fisheries. Globally, livestock production is the largest user of agricultural land.





FIGURE 13: Share of DES from meat (percent, 2009-11)

Oilcrops

The oilcrops group is made up of soyabeans, groundnuts, sunflower seed, rape and mustard seed, cotton seed, coconuts, sesame seed, palm kernels and olives. This has been one of the most vibrant sectors of world agriculture in recent decades. One of the key reasons for this has been an increase in use of these products for both food and non-food purposes. World production, consumption and trade of oilcrops have been dominated by a small number of crops, however, including oilpalm, soybeans and rapeseed.





FIGURE 14: Share of DES from oilcrops (percent, 2009-11)

Fish

Fish is an important component in people’s diets, providing about 2.9 billion people with almost 20 percent of their average per capita intake of animal protein. Capture fisheries continue to dominate world output, but aquaculture accounts for a growing percentage of total fish supply. Fishery sectors are particularly important in developing countries, in providing both food and livelihoods.





FIGURE 15: Share of DES from fish (percent, 2009-11)

Milk - excluding butter

Milk products vary significantly from region to region and among countries in the same region, depending on available technology, dietary habits, and cultural norms. Until now, the per capita consumption of milk and milk products has been greater in high-income countries. But this gap, vis-à-vis developing countries, is shrinking as incomes are rising, populations are growing and more people are moving to cities. This growing demand for milk and milk products offers an opportunity for producers (and other actors in the dairy chain) in highpotential, peri-urban areas to enhance their livelihoods through increased production.





FIGURE 16: Share of DES from milk (percent, 2009-11)


Inequality within countries















Water

A very small proportion of the planet’s water is available for human use. Of the 2.5 percent of the world’s water that is freshwater, more than two-thirds is locked in glaciers, ice caps and permafrost, about one-third is groundwater. The remaining 1.3 percent of the world’s total freshwater is surface water in rivers, lakes and swamps and in other forms such as ice and snow. Global demand for water has risen sharply within the last century. The impact of water stress and water scarcity is likely to grow further, particularly when considering climate change.





FIGURE 17: Freshwater resources withdrawn by agriculture (percent, 2000-2010*)

Greenhouse gas emissions

GHG emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land-use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of human-induced emissions – about 20-24 percent globally. Total GHG emissions from agriculture alone contribute more than 5 billion tonnes CO2eq, representing 10-12 percent of total GHG emissions. FAO estimates that agricultural production will have to increase by 60 percent by 2050 to satisfy the expected demands for food and feed, if current trends continue. This is projected to lead to a 30 percent increase in GHG emissions from the agricultural sector.





FIGURE 18: Total greenhouse gas emissions (thousand gigagrams CO2eq, 2010)

Organic agriculture

Organic agriculture is a production management system that aims to promote and enhance ecosystem health, including biological cycles and the biological activity of soil. It is based on minimizing the use of external inputs, and represents a deliberate attempt to make the best use of local natural resources. Methods are selected to minimize pollution of air, soil and water. Synthetic pesticides, mineral fertilizers, synthetic preservatives, pharmaceuticals, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), sewage sludge and irradiation are prohibited in all organic standards.





FIGURE 19: Organic agriculture, share of total agricultural area (percent, 2011)

Country Profiles

Definitions

Agricultural area organic (ha)
Sum of areas under "Agricultural area certified organic" and "Agricultural area in conversion to organic". Agricultural area certified organic is the land area exclusively dedicated to organic agriculture and managed by applying organic agriculture methods. It refers to the land area fully converted to organic agriculture. It is the portion of land area (including arable lands, pastures or wild areas) managed (cultivated) or wild harvested in accordance with specific organic standards or technical regulations and that has been inspected and approved by a certification body. Agricultural area in conversion to organic is the land area which is going through the organic conversion process, usually two years period of conversion to organic land.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Agricultural water withdrawal (m³/yr)
Annual quantity of water withdrawn for irrigation, livestock and aquaculture purposes. It includes renewable freshwater resources as well as over-abstraction of renewable groundwater or withdrawal of fossil groundwater, use of agricultural drainage water, (treated) wastewater and desalinated water.
Source: Land and Water Division (AQUASTAT)
Owner: FAO

Agriculture value added per worker (constant 2000 US$)
Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: Derived from World Bank national accounts files and Food and Agriculture Organization, Production Yearbook and data files

Agriculture, value added (annual % growth)
Annual growth rate for agricultural value added based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.

Agriculture, value added (percent of GDP)
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.

Alcoholic beverages
Includes wine, beer, fermented beverages, alcoholic beverages and non-food alcohol.
Source:FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Average Dietary energy (available for) consumption
Measures the amount of calories consumed by the household. It is expressed in kilocalories per person per day. The dietary energy consumption is estimated from the food quantities collected in the survey. Food quantities that are collected "as purchased" (including bones, peels, etc.) first are transformed into edible quantities by taking into consideration the respective food item refuse factor and then are expressed in grams. Once all edible quantities are transformed into grams of nutrients, the nutrient densities (grams of nutrient per gram of food product) of each food item are used to estimate the amount of calories consumed. The dietary energy consumption should be within reasonable ranges from 800 to 4,000 kcal (whichever decile), and it tends to increase as income increases (although it is also possible that better-off households purchase more expensive and less energetic food). Data are provided by gender (female and male headed households) and by area (urban and rural).
Source: FAO, Statistics Division
Owner: FAO

Average Dietary Energy Supply Adequacy
The Dietary Energy Supply (DES) as a percentage of the Average Dietary Energy Requirement (ADER) in each country. Each country’s or region’s average supply of calories for food consumption is normalized by the average dietary energy requirement estimated for its population, to provide an index of adequacy of the food supply in terms of calories. Analyzed together with the prevalence of undernourishment, it allows discerning whether undernourishment is mainly due to insufficiency of the food supply or to particularly bad distribution.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division
Owner: FAO

Average fat supply (gr/caput/day)
National average fat supply (expressed in grams per caput per day).
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Average protein supply (gr/caput/day)
National average protein supply (expressed in grams per caput per day).
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Average supply of protein of animal origin (gr/caput/day)
National average protein supply (expressed in grams per caput per day). It includes the following groups: Meat; Offals; Animal Fats and Products; Milk and Products; Eggs, Fish, Seafood and Products; and Acquatic Products, other.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Cause of death
Includes three causes of death (in the order they appear in the tables): by communicable diseases and maternal, prenatal and nutrition conditions; by noncommunicable diseases; and by injury. All three refer to the share of all deaths for all ages by underlying causes. Communicable diseases and maternal, prenatal and nutrition conditions include infectious and parasitic diseases, respiratory infections, and nutritional deficiencies such as underweight and stunting. Non-communicable diseases include cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, digestive diseases, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, and congenital anomalies. Injuries include unintentional and intentional injuries.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: Derived based on the data from WHO’s World Health Statistics.

Average supply of protein of animal origin (gr/caput/day)
National average protein supply (expressed in grams per caput per day). It includes the following groups: Meat; Offals; Animal Fats and Products; Milk and Products; Eggs, Fish, Seafood and Products; and Acquatic Products, other.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Cause of death
Includes three causes of death (in the order they appear in the tables): by communicable diseases and maternal, prenatal and nutrition conditions; by noncommunicable diseases; and by injury. All three refer to the share of all deaths for all ages by underlying causes. Communicable diseases and maternal, prenatal and nutrition conditions include infectious and parasitic diseases, respiratory infections, and nutritional deficiencies such as underweight and stunting. Non-communicable diseases include cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, digestive diseases, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, and congenital anomalies. Injuries include unintentional and intentional injuries.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: Derived based on the data from WHO’s World Health Statistics.

Cereals, excluding beer
Includes wheat and products, rice (milled equivalent), barley and products, maize and products, rye and products, oats, millet and products, sorghum and products, and other cereals.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Consumption of iodized salt (% of households)
Refers to the percentage of households that use edible salt fortified with iodine.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: United Nations Children’s Fund, State of the World’s Children.

Depth of food deficit
Indicates how many calories would be needed to lift the undernourished from their status, everything else being constant. The average intensity of food deprivation of the undernourished, estimated as the difference between the average dietary energy requirement and the average dietary energy consumption of the undernourished population (fooddeprived), is multiplied by the number of undernourished to provide an estimate of the total food deficit in the country, which is then normalized by the total population.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Eggs
Eggs.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Emissions in agriculture in CO2eq (gigagrams)
Agriculture Total contains all the emissions produced in the different agricultural emissions subdomains, providing a picture of the contribution to the total amount of GHG emissions from agriculture. GHG Emissions from agriculture consist of non-CO2 gases, namely methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), produced by crop and livestock production and management activities.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Exclusive breastfeeding (% of children under 6 months)
Refers to the percentage of children less than six months old who are fed breast milk alone (no other liquids) in the past 24 hours.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: UNICEF, State of the World’s Children, Childinfo, and Demographic and Health Surveys by ICF International.

Fish, seafood and aquatic products
Includes freshwater fish, demersal fish, pelagic fish, other marine fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, other molluscs, other equatic animals and aquatic plants
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Food consumer price index
Covers all goods and services, and for the food and non-alcoholic beverages group. These indices measure changes over time in the prices of food that households acquire for consumption. These indices are originally compiled and disseminated by the International Labour Organisation (ILO).
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: ILO.

Food price index
Measures of the monthly change in international prices of a basket of food commodities. It consists of the average of five commodity group price indices, weighted with the average export shares of each of the groups for 2002-2004
Source: FAO, Statistics Division
Owner: FAO.

Fruit, excluding wine
Includes oranges, madarines, lemons, limes and products, grapefruit and products, other citrus, bananas, plantains, apples and products, pineapples 239 and products, dates, grapes and products, and other fruit.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

GDP per capita
Based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser’s prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2011 international dollars.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.

Import value index (2004-2006 = 100)
Value indices represent the change in the current values of Import c.i.f. (cost, insurance and freight) all expressed in US dollars. For countries which report import values on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis, these are adjusted to approximate c.i.f. values (by a standard factor of 112 percent).
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Industry, value added (percent of GDP)
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.

Land use, net emissions/removal in CO2eq (gigagrams)
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions data from cropland are currently limited to emissions from cultivated organic soils. They are those associated with carbon losses from drained organic soils.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Life expectancy at birth
Indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: UNPD World Population Prospects 2010.

Low-birthweight babies (% of births)
Newborns weighing less than 2,500 grams, with the measurement taken within the first hours of life, before significant postnatal weight loss has occurred.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: UNICEF, State of the World’s Children, Childinfo, and Demographic and Health Surveys by ICF International.

Manufactures Unit Value (MUV) (index)
The MUV is a composite index of prices for manufactured exports from the fifteen major developed and emerging economies to low- and middleincome economies, valued in U.S. dollars. For the MUV (15) index, unit value indexes in local currency for each country are converted to U.S. dollars using market exchange rates and are combined using weights determined by the share of each country’s exports in G15 exports to low- and middleincome countries. The shares are calculated using SITC revision 3 Manufactures exports data from UN COMTRADE in 2005, the base year. The primary manufacturing prices index source is OECD’s Domestic Producer Price Index (PPI) for manufacturing. Whenever PPI is not available, export price indexes or the export unit values are used as proxies. The countries and relative weights (in parentheses) are: Brazil (2.95%), Canada (0.93%), China (11.79%), France (5.87%), Germany (13.29%), India (1.77%), Italy (6.07%), Japan (16.70%), Mexico (0.93%), South Africa (0.75%), South Korea (10.95%), Spain (2.30%), Thailand (2.51%), United Kingdom (3.50%), and United States (19.68%).
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Bank, Development Prospects Group; Historical US GDP deflator: US Department of Commerce.

Meat and offals
Includes bovine meat, mutton and goat meat, pigmeat, poultry meat, other meat, and edible offals.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Milk
Excludes butter.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Minimum dietary diversity in infants nd young children (%)
Proportion of children 6-23.9 months of age who receive foods from 4 or more food groups.
Source: WHO
Owner: WHO.

Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1000 live births)
Probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: Level & Trends in Child Mortality. Report 2011. Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA, UNPD).

Number of people undernourished
Estimated number of people at risk of undernourishment. It is calculated by applying the estimated prevalence of undernourishment to the total population
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Protein, fat, and carbohydrates contribution to Dietary Energy Consumption
Proportion of dietary energy provided by each macronutrient. The proportion of calories from protein and fats are estimated as their respective consumption in grams times 4 and 9, respectively. Then the calories from total carbohydrates and alcohol are estimated as the difference between total dietary energy consumption and the calories coming from protein and fats. The concept of a balanced diet is applied in more than one of the ADePT-FSM output tables. A joint WHO/FAO group of experts established guidelines for a "balanced diet", described in terms of the proportions of total dietary energy provided by diverse sources of energy (WHO 2003). These guidelines are related to the effects of chronic non deficiency diseases. So, according to the experts, a diet is determined to be balanced when: a) The proportion of dietary energy provided by protein is in the range of 10-15 percent; b) The proportion of dietary energy provided by fats is in the range of 15-30 percent; c) The proportion of total dietary energy provided by the remaining macronutrients is in the range of 55-75 percent. Data are provided by gender (female and male headed households) and by area (urban and rural).
Source: FAO, Statistics Division
Owner: FAO.

Oilcrops
Includes soyabeans, groundnuts (shelled equivalent), sunflower seed, rape and mustardseed, cottonseed, coconuts, sesame seed, palm kernels, olives and other oilcrops.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO.

Open defecation (%)
Defecation in fields, forests, bushes, bodies of water or other open spaces.
Source: WHO and UNICEF
Owner: JMP, Joint Monitoring Programme.

Percentage of population with access to improved drinking water sources
Refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).

Percentage of population with access to sanitation facilities
Refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).

Population
De facto population in a country, area or region as of 1 July of the year indicated.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision from the UN Population Division

Prevalence of anemia, children under 5 years of age
Proportion of children less than 5 years showing less than 110 g/l of hemoglobine at sea level.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: 1. WHO. Global anemia prevalence and trends 1995-2011. Geneva: World Health Organization; forthcoming. 2. Stevens GA, Finucane MM, De-Regil LM, et al. Global, regional, and national trends in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995-2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data. The Lancet Global Health 2013; 1(1): e16-e25.

Prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women (% of women ages 15-49)
Percentage of non-pregnant women whose hemoglobin level is less than 120 grams per liter at sea level.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: 1. WHO. Global anemia prevalence and trends 1995-2011. Geneva: World Health Organization; forthcoming. 2. Stevens GA, Finucane MM, De-Regil LM, et al. Global, regional, and national trends in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995-2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data. The Lancet Global Health 2013; 1(1): e16-e25.

Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women (%)
Percentage of pregnant women whose hemoglobin level is less than 110 grams per liter at sea level.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: 1. WHO. Global anemia prevalence and trends 1995-2011. Geneva: World Health Organization; forthcoming. 2. Stevens GA, Finucane MM, De-Regil LM, et al. Global, regional, and national trends in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995-2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data. The Lancet Global Health 2013; 1(1): e16-e25.

Prevalence of food over-acquisition
The percentage of individuals in a population who tend, on a regular basis, to acquire food in excess of their needs, is obtained by estimating the probability that, by randomly sampling a member of the population, the level of food consumption is found to be excessive when assessed against that person’s energy requirements.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division
Owner: FAO

Prevalence of iodine deficiency based on urinary excretion, children
The proportion of school children aged 6 to 12 years of age showing urinary iodine equal or lower than 100 g/l
Source: FAO, Statistics Division
Owner: WHO

Prevalence of overweight (% of children under 5)
Percentage of children under age 5 whose weight for height is more than two standard deviations above the median for the international reference population of the corresponding age as established by the WHO’s new child growth standards released in 2006.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Health Organization, Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Country-level data are unadjusted data from national surveys, and thus may not be comparable across countries.

Prevalence of overweight and obesity, adults (percent)
The percentage of adults (ages 20+) who have a BMI (kg/m2) greater than 25 (overweight) or greater than 30 (obese).
Source: WHO
Owner: World Health Organization

Prevalence of severe wasting, weight for height (% of children under 5)
Proportion of children under five whose weight for height is more than three standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0-59 months.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Health Organization, Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Country-level data are unadjusted data from national surveys, and thus may not be comparable across countries.

Prevalence of undernourishment
Expresses the probability that a randomly selected individual from the population consumes an amount of calories that is insufficient to cover her/his energy requirement for an active and healthy life. The indicator is computed by comparing a probability distribution of habitual daily Dietary Energy Consumption with a threshold level called the Minimum Dietary Energy Requirement. Both are based on the notion of an average individual in the reference population.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division
Owner: FAO

Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency based on serum retinol, total pop
The proportion of total population with serum retinol equal or lower than 0.70 èmol/l.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: United Nations Children’s Fund, State of the World’s Children.

Prevalence of wasting
Proportion of children under five whose weight for height is more than two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0-59 months.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Health Organization, Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Country-level data are unadjusted data from national surveys, and thus may not be comparable across countries.

Pulses
Includes beans, peas and other pulses and products.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Rural population
De facto population living in areas classified as rural (that is, it is the difference between the total population of a country and its urban population). Data refer to 1 July of the year indicated and are presented in thousands.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects.

Services, etc., value added (percent of GDP)
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files

Share of animal protein in total protein (available for) consumption (%)
Proportion of protein consumption coming from food of animal origin (animal proteins). The food commodities considered to be of animal origin are meat (red and white), fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. When households are classified by income quintiles, an increasing trend in the proportion of protein of animal origin consumed as one moves from the first to the last income quintile is expected. This is mainly because richer households can afford more expensive food products such as meat and fish. However, such a trend probably is not present in pastoral regions where poor communities/ households derive a sizeable part of their consumption from livestock products (i.e., milk and cheese). Data are provided by gender (female and male headed households) and by area (urban and rural).
Source: FAO, Statistics Division
Owner: FAO

Share of freshwater resources withdrawn by agriculture (percent)
Water withdrawn for irrigation in a given year, expressed in percent of the total actual renewable water resources (TRWR_actual). This parameter is an indication of the pressure on the renewable water resources caused by irrigation.
Source: Land and Water Division (AQUASTAT)
Owner: FAO

Starchy roots
Includes cassava and products, potatoes and products, sweet potatoes, and other roots.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Stimulants
Includes coffee and products, cocoa beans and products, and tea (including mate).
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Stunting (% of children under 5)
Percentage of children under age 5 whose height for age (stunting) is more than two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0-59 months. For children up to two years old height is measured by recumbent length. For older children height is measured by stature while standing. The data are based on the WHO’s new child growth standards released in 2006.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Health Organization, Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Country-level data are unadjusted data from national surveys, and thus may not be comparable across countries.

Sugar and sweeteners
Includes sugar (raw equivalent), other sweeteners, and honey.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Total economically active population
Economic activity is defined by two key criteria. First economic activities take precence over noneconomic activities. And two, within economic activities, the status of being employed takes precendence over the status of being unemployed.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: ILO, laborsta

Total water withdrawal per capita (m3/yr/person)
Total annual amount of water withdrawn per capita.
Source: Land and Water Division (AQUASTAT)
Owner: FAO

Tree nuts
Includes nuts and products.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Underweight (% of children under 5)
Percentage of children under age 5 whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0-59 months. The data are based on the WHO’s new child growth standards released in 2006.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: World Health Organization, Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Country-level data are unadjusted data from national surveys, and thus may not be comparable across countries.

Underweight, adults (%)
Percentage of adults who are underweight, as defined by a Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2) below the international reference standard of 18.5. To calculate an individual’s BMI, weight and height data are need. The BMI is weight (kg) divided by squared height (m).
Source: World Health Organization (WHO)
Owner: World Health Organization, Global Database on Body Mass Index: Link

Urban population
De facto population living in areas classified as urban (that is, it is the difference between the total population of a country and its urban population). Data refer to 1 July of the year indicated and are presented in thousands.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects.

Vegetable oils and animal fats
Includes soyabean oil, groundnut oil, sunflowerseed oil, rape and mustard oil, cottonseed oil, palmkernel oil, palm oil, coconut oil, sesameseed oil, olive oil, maize germ oil, other oilcrops oil, butter, ghee, cream, raw animal fats, body oil (fish) and liver oil (fish).
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Vegetables
Includes tomatoes and products, onions, and other vegetables.
Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)
Owner: FAO

Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (% of children ages 6-59 months)
Refers to the percentage of children ages 6-59 months old who received at least two doses of vitamin A in the previous year.
Source: World Bank (WDI)
Owner: United Nations Children’s Fund, State of the World’s Children.

Notes

The country classification adopted in this publication is the United Nations M49 classification (http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49.htm). The country names have been abbreviated for the purpose of this publication. The official FAO names can be found at http://termportal.fao.org/faonocs/appl/.

Following the creation of the Republic of South Sudan in July 2011, the M49 classification considered the Sudan as part of the Northern Africa region, and South Sudan as part of Eastern Africa. In this report, data for the Sudan are therefore included in the Northern Africa region.

The asterisk denotes a three year average for the following ranges of years: 1990-92, 2000-02 and 2012-14.

When the country data have not been reported for the reference year, data in italics indicates that the value for the most recent year available is shown.

In the tables, a blank means not applicable or, for an aggregate, not analytically meaningful. A 0 or 0.0 means zero or a number that is small enough to round to zero at the displayed number of decimal places.

The ~ in the maps refers to the range specified in the class intervals.

Two types of aggregations are used in the book: sum and weighted mean. Two restrictions are imposed when computing the aggregation: i) the sufficiency condition – the aggregation is computed only when sufficient countries have reported data, and the current threshold is set at 50 percent of the variable and the weighting variable, if present; and ii) the comparability condition – as aggregations are usually computed over time, this condition is designed to ensure that the number of countries is comparable over several years; under the current restriction the number of countries may not vary by more than 15 over time.

This publication was carried out under the direction of Pietro Gennari (Chief Statistician and Director, ESS) and Anna Laherty (Director, ESN). It was prepared by the Statistics Division (Filippo Gheri, Amy Heyman and Nathalie Troubat) and the Nutrition Division (Catherine Leclercq and Ruth Charrondière), with substantial guidance from Josef Schmidhuber (ESS). Contributions were also made by Piero Conforti (ESS), Michelle Kendrick (ESD) and Adam Prakash (ESS).

:)


Anna Lartey Pietro Gennari
Director, Nutrition Division Chief Statistician and Director, Statistics Division

Contents